Here’s a comprehensive article all about the spice cumin. If you need to know a little something about this highly prized spice that has been enjoyed throughout history, you should find your answer below. From what it is, the history of cumin, its nutritional aspects, and how to use it, is all covered, and more!
Cumin 101 – The Basics
The spice cumin is native to the Mediterranean region. It has been cultivated in the Middle East, India, China, and Mediterranean countries for thousands of years. Throughout history, cumin has played an important part in the cuisines and medicine of the region. During Biblical times, cumin was used as a spice in soup and bread, and also as a currency to pay tithes to priests. Ancient Egyptians used cumin in the mummification process of pharaohs.
Ancient Greeks and Romans used cumin as a culinary spice, especially since it was readily available. It was often used as a substitute for black pepper, which was very expensive and hard to obtain at the time.
Cumin was commonly used in Europe during the Middle Ages. It became known as a symbol of love and fidelity. People often carried cumin seeds with them when attending weddings, and wives often sent loaves of cumin bread with husbands who were going off to war.
Cumin seeds look similar to caraway seeds. They are yellow-brown, and oblong with longitudinal ridges. Cumin belongs to the same botanical family (Umbelliferae) as caraway, parsley, and dill. It has a strong, earthy flavor that can be described as peppery with slight citrus undertones. Cumin is available in both whole seeds and a ground powder. Cumin is the world’s second most popular spice, second to black pepper. The seeds come in brown, black and white colors.
Nutrition and Health Benefits of Cumin
Cumin in an excellent source of iron, and has appreciable amounts of manganese, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and Vitamin B1.
Cumin has some important health benefits, as follows…
Iron. Cumin is an excellent source of iron. Since iron is a vital part of hemoglobin in our blood, it plays a key role in transporting oxygen from the lungs to all cells of the body. Iron is also necessary for proper energy metabolism through its role in specific enzymes in the production of energy. Iron is also used in keeping the immune system healthy by being a key component in the reproduction and maturation of immune cells, especially lymphocytes. Two teaspoons of cumin seeds provide almost 3 mg of iron, or about 16 percent of our Daily Value of iron. That’s impressive!
Digestion. Traditionally, cumin seeds have been used to help promote healthy digestion. Recent research has backed that up by finding that cumin promotes the release of pancreatic enzymes which are critical for proper digestion and nutrient absorption.
Cancer prevention. Cumin seeds may also have anticancer properties. Research has shown that cumin protected laboratory animals from stomach and liver tumors. This anticancer effect may be due to cumin’s ability to enhance liver detoxification enzymes in addition to its powerful free radical scavenging properties. Researchers speculate these properties alone may give cumin health-promoting effects yet to be identified.
How to Select Cumin
For the longest shelf-life, select whole cumin seeds. The ground powder is convenient, but tends to lose its flavor quickly. Cumin seeds can be used whole, or ground to a powder in a spice grinder or mortar and pestle.
How to Store
Cumin seeds and powder should be kept in a tightly sealed glass container in a cool, dry, and dark place. Ground cumin keeps well for about six months. Whole seeds will stay fresh for about one year. To extend the life of whole cumin seeds, they may be kept tightly wrapped in the freezer.
How to Prepare Cumin
Whole seeds and ground cumin can be used straight from the jar. However, lightly toasting the seeds before being used brings out their full aroma and flavor.
Quick Ideas and Tips for Using Cumin
* Cumin is often combined with black pepper and honey in middle Eastern countries. This combination is often used to flavor vegetables, chicken and fish dishes.
* A warming cup of cumin tea can be made by bringing seeds to a boil in water, then letting them steep for 8 to 10 minutes. This can help reduce bloating and intestinal gas.
* Cumin is often used to flavor lentils, chickpeas, and black beans. The flavor of cumin blends well with legumes, so remember that as a flavor option the next time you cook beans.
* Flavor up rice by adding toasted cumin seeds, dried apricots, and almonds.
* Cumin goes well with just about any grain. If you want to add a little flavor, sprinkle on a little ground cumin.
* Give vegetables a North African flavor twist by adding a little cumin.
* The flavor of cumin is very strong. If you’re not sure, just sprinkle a little on your food, then taste it, and go from there.
* Whole cumin seeds can be lightly toasted in a hot, dry skillet for 5 minutes. This step intensifies the flavor, giving them a deep, smoky flavor. Keep the seeds moving in the pan so they don’t burn. Add toasted cumin seeds to salads, roasted potatoes or other vegetables, bread doughs, and soups.
* For the best flavor, toast cumin seeds before grinding them into powder.
* Tempering cumin seeds with other spices is a common technique used in Indian cooking. This step releases flavors and aromas from the spices before adding other ingredients. Simply fry them in oil briefly until they are aromatic and start to pop, then add other ingredients. This will infuse the entire dish with the cumin flavor.
* Sprinkle ground toasted cumin on avocado toast.
* Add cumin to pork and lamb dishes.
* Sprinkle a little ground cumin over a boiled egg, along with a little salt.
* Sprinkle a little cumin onto a cheese omelet as it finishes cooking.
* Add whole cumin seeds early in cooking to allow time for the flavors to be released.
* The flavor of ground cumin is more concentrated that that of the whole seeds. When switching one for the other, use less of the ground spice than the whole seed.
Herbs/Spices That Go Well with Cumin
Cardamom, cayenne, chili powder, cilantro, cinnamon, cloves, coriander, curry powder, fenugreek, garlic, ginger, mint, nutmeg, oregano, paprika, pepper, turmeric
Foods That Go Well with Cumin
Proteins, Legumes, Nuts, Seeds: Beans (in general), beef, chicken, chickpeas, eggs, lamb, lentils, peas, seafood, sesame seeds, walnuts
Vegetables: Bell peppers, cabbage, carrots, chiles, chives, eggplant, mushrooms, onions, potatoes, sauerkraut, squash (i.e. kabocha), tomatoes and tomato sauce, vegetables (root)
Fruits: Avocados, lemon, lime, tamarind
Grains and Grain Products: Bulgur, grains (in general), rice
Dairy and Non-Dairy: Cheese (i.e. cheddar, Swiss), yogurt
Other Foods: Cocoa
Cumin has been used in the following cuisines and dishes…
North African cuisines, baba ghanoush, baked goods (i.e. breads), burritos, chili, Cuban cuisine, curries, dals, enchiladas, Greek cuisine, hummus, Indian cuisine, kebabs, Latin American cuisines, marinades, Mediterranean cuisines, Mexican cuisine, Middle Eastern cuisines, Moroccan cuisine, purees, salad dressings, salads (i.e. bean, rice), salsas, sauces (i.e. tomato), soups, Southeast Asian cuisines, Spanish cuisine, stews, tacos, Tex-Mex cuisine, Turkish cuisine
Suggested Flavor Combos Using Cumin
Add cumin to any of the following combinations…
Avocado + black beans + lime + tomatoes
Black beans + cilantro + garlic
Cilantro + curry spices
Garlic + Potatoes
Paprika + tomatoes
Curried Cumin Potatoes https://www.allrecipes.com/recipe/38033/curried-cumin-potatoes/?internalSource=staff%20pick&referringId=1137&referringContentType=Recipe%20Hub
Homemade Black Bean Veggie Burgers https://www.allrecipes.com/recipe/85452/homemade-black-bean-veggie-burgers/?internalSource=hub%20recipe&referringId=1137&referringContentType=Recipe%20Hub&clickId=cardslot%205
Refried Beans without the Refry https://www.allrecipes.com/recipe/70312/refried-beans-without-the-refry/?internalSource=hub%20recipe&referringId=1137&referringContentType=Recipe%20Hub&clickId=cardslot%206
Fish Tacos with Honey-Cumin Cilantro Slaw and Chipotle Mayo https://www.allrecipes.com/recipe/149052/fish-tacos-with-honey-cumin-cilantro-slaw-and-chipotle-mayo/?internalSource=hub%20recipe&referringId=1137&referringContentType=Recipe%20Hub&clickId=cardslot%2015
Moroccan Vegetable Stew https://www.myrecipes.com/recipe/moroccan-vegetable-stew
Wilted Cabbage with Toasted Cumin https://www.myrecipes.com/recipe/wilted-cabbage-with-toasted-cumin
Chickpea Salad with Cumin Vinaigrette https://www.myrecipes.com/recipe/chickpea-salad-with-cumin-vinaigrette
Barbecue-Rubbed Pork Chops https://www.myrecipes.com/recipe/barbecue-rubbed-pork-chops
Cauliflower Tacos with Cashew Crema https://www.bonappetit.com/recipe/cauliflower-tacos-with-cashew-crema
Vegetarian Taco Bowls https://www.bonappetit.com/recipe/vegetarian-taco-bowls
Mixed Bean and Avocado Salad https://www.thekitchn.com/recipe-mixed-be-18056
Page, Karen. (2014) The Vegetarian Flavor Bible. New York, NY: Little, Brown and Company.
Julia W. Klee (Judi) began her journey enjoying “all things food” in elementary school when she started preparing meals for her family. That love of food blossomed into a quest to learn more and more about health and wellness as related to nutrition. She went on to earn a BS Degree in Food and Nutrition, then an MS Degree in Nutrition. She has taught nutrition and related courses at the college level to pre-nursing and exercise science students. Her hunger to learn didn’t stop upon graduation from college. She continues to research on a regular basis about nutrition as it relates to health. Her hope is to help as many people as possible to enjoy foods that promote health and wellness.